Viral hepatitis in children: what do we know in 2021?

Published:October 24, 2021DOI:


      Viruses are a common cause of hepatitis in children. Hepatitis A and E cause acute infections while Hepatitis B, C and D can lead to chronic infection with increased morbidity and mortality due to chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in later life. Acute infections may be fulminant causing acute liver failure necessitating a liver transplant. Our understanding of these viruses continues to evolve, and this review aims to summarize the current strategies in diagnosis, prevention and use of anti-viral drugs to treat these infections.


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      Further reading

        • Abdel-Hady M.
        • Kelly D.E.D.S.
        • Kuipers E.J.
        Hepatitis B and C in children in: encyclopaedia of gastroenterology 2nd edition. vol. 3. 2019: 113-121
        • Dalton H.
        • Webb G.
        Hepatitis E: an underestimated emerging threat.
        Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2019; 6: 1-18
      1. HCV Guidance: Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C

        • Indolfi G.
        • Abdel-Hady M.
        • Bansal S.
        • et al.
        Management of hepatitis B virus infection and prevention of hepatitis B virus reactivation in children with acquired immunodeficiencies or undergoing immune suppressive, cytotoxic, or biological modifier therapies.
        J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020; 70: 527-538
        • Indolfi G.
        • Easterbrook P.
        • Dusheiko G.
        • et al.
        Hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents.
        Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 4: 466-476
        • Modin L.
        • Arshad A.
        • Wilkes B.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis C virus infection among children and young people.
        J Hepatol. 2019 Mar; 70: 371-378
        • Rizzetto M.
        • Hamid S.
        • Negro F.
        The changing context of hepatitis D.
        J Hepatol. 2021; 74: 1200-1211